American Academy of Pediatrics Policy Statement: Early Childhood Adversity, Toxic Stress, and the Role of the Pediatrician: Translating Developmental Science Into Lifelong Health

Robert F. Anda et al., 2020, American Journal of Preventive Medicine (in press): Inside the Adverse Childhood Experience Score:Strengths, Limitations, and Misapplications

Vincent J. Felitti et al., 1998, American Journal of Preventive Medicine 14(4): Relationship of Childhood Abuse and Household Dysfunction to Many of the Leading Causes of Death in Adults - The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study

Bruce D. Perry et al., 1995, Infant Mental Health Journal, Vol. 16, No. 4: Childhood Trauma, the Neurobiology of Adaptation, and "Use-dependent" Development of the Brain: How "States" Become "Traits"
Open access at


From the Press

Interview Fiona Duncan: ‘We want to put love at the heart of Scotland’s care system’
The chair of the review into care in Scotland believes the system must be rebalanced to focus on supporting the child

Children’s care system in Scotland needs replacing, review finds
Calls for ‘fractured’ system to be scrapped as Sturgeon says it is letting children down



Preventing Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs): Leveraging the Best Available Evidence - Centre of Disease and Control (CDC), Division of Violence Prevention

The impact of adverse experiences in the home on the health of children and young people, and inequalities in prevalence and effects |by Matilda Allen, Dr Angela Donkin | UCL Institute of Health Equity

"We grow up loved, safe, and respected so that we realise our full potential." Scotland’s ambition for children and young people


More academic articles

Click the link below to access the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) resources page on the academic discussion, the methodologies used when researching ACEs, as well as an extensive list of academic journals on the effects of ACEs on mental health (depression, hallucinations, neurobiology, suicidality), autoimmune disease, cancer, health-related quality of life, ischaemic heart disease, alcohol abuse, drug abuse, obesity, smoking, interrelation of ACEs, severity and frequency of violent experience, reproductive health/sexual behavior, intimate partner violence, and more.